Imaging Conflict

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Caribou and Wolf II
conflict in the animal world, action image, combat in nature, caribou, wolf, action shot, northern Quebec, defense, hunter, Inuit printmaking, Etok, printmaking, stonecut, stonecut on paper, print, meeting between species of animals, imagination, animal conflict, conflict, threat to society, survival, defense, predator, victim, hunger,narrative, representational art, animal conflict, Inuit printmaking, survival, predator, conflict, animals, caribou, wolf, action, stonecut print, printmaking,
description

In Tivi Etok’s Caribou and Wolf II, we are given a glimpse into conflict in the animal world, and it is a momentary glimpse.  This is a highly-charged action shot of natural combat. The caribou is frozen mid-kick, while the wolf flails, legs everywhere and whiskers in the air.

start quoteThe scratching, which stopped at dawn, was made by evil spirits and their offspring lurking around at night outside our tents.end quote -- Tivi Etok

Etok has chosen to depict the animals that he may have encountered near his home in George River, in the north of Québec. While much, though not nearly all,  InuitInuit means “the people” in Inukititut, the language of the people of northern Canada. Go to http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/pr/info/info114_e.html for further information.   printmakingA print is a shape or mark made from a block or plate or other object that is covered with wet colour (usually ink) and then pressed onto a flat surface, such as paper or textile. Most prints can be produced over and over again by re-inking the printing block or plate. Printmaking can be done in many ways, including using an engraved block or stone, transfer paper, or a film negative. The making of fine prints is generally included in the graphic arts, while the work of artists whose designs are made to satisfy the needs of more commercial clients are included in graphic design. (Artlex.com)  portrays life as shared between animals and people (examples of which can be found in the ARTSask Coexistence theme), Etok is providing insight into a meeting between animals. It is possible that this image is sourced from his own life, from a skirmish that Etok saw first-hand, or it may be a product of his imagination.

Etok points to the source of animal conflict, and therefore to the source of human conflict - survival. When as humans we become afraid that something threatens our society, our way of life, our comfort and our families, we prepare to fight each other. Animals fight for the same reasons, only their reasons are more immediate. The wolf’s survival rests on his ability to kill and therefore to eat, while the caribou’s survival rests on his ability to evade or repel and therefore to not be eaten. The wolf may die from this caribou’s kick, but more likely the caribou will have to again defend itself from its predator one day.

In French, Etok recalls a story of a caribou hunt, and the struggle between the hungry hunter and the defensive caribou:

Cette histoire vient de ma grand-mère. Jadis, nous nous abritions sous des tentes fabriquées avec des peaux d’animaux. Le soir , dans la noirceur, nous entendions quelque chose qui grattait sur les parois extérieures de nos tentes. Nous avions tellement peur que nous osions à peine respirer. Ces grattements qui cessaient à l’aube provenaient d’esprits maléfiques et de leur progéniture qui rôdaient la nuit autour de nos tentes. Jadis, lorsque nous chassions le caribou avec un arc et des flèches, même les chasseurs les plus habiles couraient de graves dangers. Le caribou mâle s’élançait souvent sur le chasseur qui ne pouvait abandonner sa proie, tout effrayé qu’il fut, puisqu’il avait besoin de viande pour nourrir sa famille. Il lui fallait lutter jusqu’au bout, même s’il avait les jambes et les bras cassés.  --Tivi Etook

(translation into English) This story comes from my grandmother. In the old days, we sheltered in tents made from animal hides. At night, when it was dark, we would hear scratching on the outside walls of our tents. We were so afraid that we could hardly breathe. The scratching, which stopped at dawn, was made by evil spirits and their offspring lurking around at night outside our tents. In the old days, when we hunted caribou with bows and arrows, even the most skilled hunters faced great danger. The male caribou would often charge the hunter, who, no matter how frightened he was, could not abandon his kill because he needed the meat to feed his family. He had to fight to the end, even if his arms and legs were broken. –Tivi Etook

additional resources Things to Think About
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Conduct some research into the traditions of the  InuitInuit means “the people” in Inukititut, the language of the people of northern Canada. Go to http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/pr/info/info114_e.html for further information.  people of Canada’s north. You can use the following website links to get you started:

Inuit artists often reflect the life and culture of the Inuit people in their artwork, including the materials they use and the  imageryAn image is a picture, idea, or impression of a person, thing, or idea; or a mental picture of a person, thing, or idea. The word imagery refers to a group or body of related images. (Artlex.com)  they choose. Compare traditional Inuit artworks (use the websites listed above) to the works of  contemporaryCurrent, belonging to the same period of time. Usually referring to our present time, but can refer to being current with any specified time. (Artlex.com)  artists such as Annie Pootoogook. What are the similarities and differences?

 

Story telling traditions

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Line reversal drawing

  • Draw inside of the box on the left.
  • Click on the Reflect button to mirror the image.

 

Studio Activity

The  InuitInuit means “the people” in Inukititut, the language of the people of northern Canada. Go to http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/pr/info/info114_e.html for further information.  developed a method of  reliefA type of sculpture in which forms projects from a background. There are three degrees or types of relief: high, low, and sunken. In high relief, the forms stand far out from the background. In low relief (best known as bas-relief), they are shallow. In sunken relief, also called hollow or intaglio; the backgrounds are not cut back and the points in highest relief are level with the original surface of the material being carved. (Artlex.com)  printing by carving a stone block for the matrix or template for the print. This method is called a stonecut. To make a  stonecut printA print made by using a stone as the printing surface, as opposed to a woodcut print. The image to be printed is carved in relief on the printing block. See http://www.civilization.ca/aborig/iqqaipaa/artmak-e.html for further information.  the artist will “draw” into the stone by chiselling away the negative  shapeAn element of art, it is an enclosed space defined and determined by other art elements such as line, colour, value, and texture. In painting and drawing, shapes may take on the appearance of a solid three-dimensional object even though they are limited to two dimensions — length and width. This two-dimensional character of shape distinguishes it from form, which has depth as well as length and width. Examples of shapes include: circle, oval, and oblong; polygons such as triangle, square, rectangle, rhombus, trapezium, trapezoid, pentagon, hexagon, heptagon, octagon, nonagon, decagon, undecagon, dodecagon, etc.; and such other kinds of shapes as amorphous, biomorphous, and concretion. (Artlex.com)  from the stone. The positive shape, which is the raised stone left on the block, is then inked and paper is placed over top of the stone. To transfer the image, the artist uses a tool to press the paper down to absorb the ink. The printed paper is then pulled off the stone. Because of the durability of stone a number of prints can be made from the same block, but each one is considered to be an original work.

Create a  reliefA type of sculpture in which forms projects from a background. There are three degrees or types of relief: high, low, and sunken. In high relief, the forms stand far out from the background. In low relief (best known as bas-relief), they are shallow. In sunken relief, also called hollow or intaglio; the backgrounds are not cut back and the points in highest relief are level with the original surface of the material being carved. (Artlex.com)   printAn exactly repeatable visual statement which exists as two-dimensional physical material.  depicting an animal that is important to you.  You can use  linoleumLinoleum is a durable, washable material formerly used more for flooring as vinyl flooring is used today. It is usually backed with burlap or canvas, and may be purchased adhered to a wooden block. The linoleum can be cut in much the same way woodcuts are produced, however its surface is softer and without grain. Also refers to a print made with this method. Linoleum cuts have been made by Henri Matisse (French, 1869-1954) and Pablo Picasso (Spanish, 1881-1973).  (Artlex.com)  blocks, easy-cut blocks, or even corrugated cardboard.

You can learn more about stonecut  printmakingA print is a shape or mark made from a block or plate or other object that is covered with wet colour (usually ink) and then pressed onto a flat surface, such as paper or textile. Most prints can be produced over and over again by re-inking the printing block or plate. Printmaking can be done in many ways, including using an engraved block or stone, transfer paper, or a film negative. The making of fine prints is generally included in the graphic arts, while the work of artists whose designs are made to satisfy the needs of more commercial clients are included in graphic design. (Artlex.com)  by visiting the following websites:

References

Beck, Gordon. ‘Chronicling their roots.’ Montreal Gazette, Tuesday, May 1, 2007. Retrieved from the Internet on February 14, 2008 at: http://www.canada.com/montrealgazette/news/youthzone/story.html?id=5239dcd6-f7f1-4be3-8fb5-9612940ee6bf&cid=1115914326&ei=qGk3RreyD6LC0gG9y_jkBQ

Brazeau, Mark. ‘Defining the  InuitInuit means “the people” in Inukititut, the language of the people of northern Canada. Go to http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/pr/info/info114_e.html for further information.  Dog.’ The Fan Hitch: Journal of the  InuitInuit means “the people” in Inukititut, the language of the people of northern Canada. Go to http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/pr/info/info114_e.html for further information.  Dog Sled International, Vol. 9 No. 1, December 2006. Retrieved from the Internet on February 14, 2008 at: http://homepage.mac.com/puggiq/V9N1/V9,N1Defining.html

George, Jane. ‘Makivik honours three heros.’ Nunatsiaq News, April 21, 2006. Retrieved from the Internet on February 14, 2008 at: http://www.nunatsiaq.com/archives/60421/news/nunavut/60421_07.html

Polak, Monique. ‘Dogsled teams pulling teens back on track.’ Montreal Gazette, Sunday, March 11, 2007. Retrieved from the Internet on February 14, 2008 at: http://www.canada.com/montrealgazette/news/montreal/story.html?id=a9818b22-f9d0-4a69-9fb3-e7c8aedb9f61&p=2

Ripple River Gallery. “Lasting Impressions” -  InuitInuit means “the people” in Inukititut, the language of the people of northern Canada. Go to http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/pr/info/info114_e.html for further information.  Prints. Exhibition write-up, Ripple River Gallery, Aitkin, Minnesota, 2004. Retrieved from the Internet on February 14, 2008 at: http://www.ripplerivergallery.com/2004 Guest Artists.htm

Roed, Bente. ‘Inuit Printmaking.’ The Canadian Encyclopedia (online). Retrieved from the Internet on February 14, 2008 at: http://thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0004044

Ullriaq School. Global Warming Video Conference. Ullriaq School, Kangiqsualujjuaq, Québec, Wednesday, May 10, 2006. Retrieved from the Internet on February 14, 2008 at: http://kativik.net/ulluriaq/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=21&newlang=

Université de Montréal. Rhodiola (golden root) to the rescue for Inuit. Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, News section. Retrieved from the Internet on February 14, 2008 at: http://www.umontreal.ca/english/news_digest/2006-2007/20060918/orpin.html

The Winnipeg Art Gallery. Antler into Art. Exhibition write-up, Winnipeg Art Gallery, Winnipeg, Manitoba, 2007. Retrieved from the Internet on February 14, 2008 at: http://www.wag.mb.ca/htmlfiles/EXHIBITIONS/CURRENT_/antler-into-art.asp

Parcours Le Monde. ‘Des Inuits a Paris. (Tivi Etok recalls caribou hunt.)’. Retrieved from the Internet on February 14, 2008 at: http://www.parcourslemonde.com/articles/journal-inuit.php?id=378&colonne=2

Canadian Heritage University of Regina Mackenzie Art Gallery Mendel Art Gallery Sask Learning