Earth Science and Art

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Slice of Earth
earth science, geology, geological time, sculpture, coloured clay, glaze, kiln, past, present, future, firing, cross-section, geological formations, rock layers, tectonic forces, earth's formation, stylized, coloured oxides, earth stratum, dinosaurs, potash, glaciers, lake bed,
description

Slice of Earth is one of four Beug sculptures in the MacKenzie Art Gallery collection. Clay, Beug says, is a very natural material to work with on the Prairies, "We basically live at the bottom of a dried lake bed. And I liked the fact that, unlike stone, you can change this  clayMud; moist, sticky dirt. In ceramics, clay is the basic material, usually referring to any of a certain variety of mixtures of such ingredients — fine-grained, firm earthy material that is plastic when wet, brittle when dry, and very hard when heated. There is a temperature with ceramic clays at which their particles fuse (vitrification), and this is most commonly controlled by heating (firing) them in a kiln. The most common types of ceramic clays are earthenware (terra cotta when fired, terra cruda when not), stonewares, and porcelain. (Artlex.com)  so easily when it is wet. Then, by  firingTo fire is a process of applying heat to make hard pottery in either an oven or an ovenlike enclosure called a kiln. Also the means of fixing colours to ceramic surfaces. (Artlex.com)  it, you can turn it back into rocks in whatever  shapeAn element of art, it is an enclosed space defined and determined by other art elements such as line, colour, value, and texture. In painting and drawing, shapes may take on the appearance of a solid three-dimensional object even though they are limited to two dimensions — length and width. This two-dimensional character of shape distinguishes it from form, which has depth as well as length and width. Examples of shapes include: circle, oval, and oblong; polygons such as triangle, square, rectangle, rhombus, trapezium, trapezoid, pentagon, hexagon, heptagon, octagon, nonagon, decagon, undecagon, dodecagon, etc.; and such other kinds of shapes as amorphous, biomorphous, and concretion. (Artlex.com)  or  colourProduced by light of various wavelengths, and when light strikes an object and reflects back to the eyes. Colour is an element of art with three properties: (1) hue or tint, the colour name, e.g., red, yellow, blue, etc.: (2) intensity, the purity and strength of a colour, e.g., bright red or dull red; and (3) value, the lightness or darkness of a colour. When the spectrum is organized as a color wheel, the colours are divided into groups called primary, secondary and intermediate (or tertiary) colours; analogous and complementary, and also as warm and cool colours. Colours can be objectively described as saturated, clear, cool, warm, deep, subdued, grayed, tawny, mat, glossy, monochrome, multicolored, particolored, variegated, or polychromed. Some words used to describe colours are more subjective (subject to personal opinion or taste), such as: exciting, sweet, saccharine, brash, garish, ugly, beautiful, cute, fashionable, pretty, and sublime. Sometimes people speak of colours when they are actually refering to pigments, what they are made of (various natural or synthetic substances), their relative permanence, etc. (Artlex.com)  you want. It's a controlled rock-making process.” (Hryniuk, 1988)

start quoteTake a handful of clay, and you hold 10,000 or 100,000 years of history in your palm.end quote
-- Lorne Beug (Ylitalo 1983)

In Slice of Earth he demonstrates his interest in the earth's formation and tectonic forces as he represents millions of years of changes in the earth's surface in his sculptural cross-section of earth. “In a manner both logical and metaphorical he uses earth to make images of earth,” says writer Katherine Ylitalo. (Ylitalo, 1983)

Beug studies rock formations as a  geologistOne versed in the science of geology. Geology (n.) The science which treats: (a) Of the structure and mineral constitution of the globe; structural geology. (b) Of its history as regards rocks, minerals, rivers, valleys, mountains, climates, life, etc.; historical geology. (c) Of the causes and methods by which its structure, features, changes, and conditions have been produced; dynamical geology. (The Online Plain Text English Dictionary)  would, but as an artist he takes artistic license to recreate formations in simplified and  stylizedTo stylize is to alter natural shapes, forms, colours, or textures in order to make a representation in a preset style or manner. The design of any work tends to result in its having a style, and its having been freely chosen is one aspect of its appeal. "Stylization" suggests a more controlled application of a style, the artist having less freedom of choice. (Artlex.com)  ways. Each layer of the  sculptureA three-dimensional work of art, or the art of making it. Such works may be carved, modeled, constructed, or cast. Sculptures can also be described as assemblage, in the round, and relief, and made in a huge variety of media. A sculptor is one who creates sculptures. (artlex.com)  is approximately the same size and little variation in land formation is implied. Like a layer cake, each section is built upon another and only one section containing the relics of sea creatures is considerably larger than the others.

Beug uses different coloured clays to represent the five layers of rock formations of geological time in this work,. He makes the colours by adding oxides to his  clayMud; moist, sticky dirt. In ceramics, clay is the basic material, usually referring to any of a certain variety of mixtures of such ingredients — fine-grained, firm earthy material that is plastic when wet, brittle when dry, and very hard when heated. There is a temperature with ceramic clays at which their particles fuse (vitrification), and this is most commonly controlled by heating (firing) them in a kiln. The most common types of ceramic clays are earthenware (terra cotta when fired, terra cruda when not), stonewares, and porcelain. (Artlex.com)  body. He uses colorants such as iron  oxideA compound in which oxygen is bonded to one or more electropositive atoms.  (rust in the top layer) and manganese (black in the bottom layer). Various combinations of mineral oxides could have been used to create the other colours.

Slice of Earth reveals rocks, bones, shells and other relics within each earth stratum. The objects have been carefully applied to insure that their colours do not mix with or become contaminated by the surrounding  clayMud; moist, sticky dirt. In ceramics, clay is the basic material, usually referring to any of a certain variety of mixtures of such ingredients — fine-grained, firm earthy material that is plastic when wet, brittle when dry, and very hard when heated. There is a temperature with ceramic clays at which their particles fuse (vitrification), and this is most commonly controlled by heating (firing) them in a kiln. The most common types of ceramic clays are earthenware (terra cotta when fired, terra cruda when not), stonewares, and porcelain. (Artlex.com)  colour. To avoid colour-mixing between the large coloured sections, Beug did not join them during the initial construction. They were connected with wire and glue after they had been fired.

The water or lake at the top of the  sculptureA three-dimensional work of art, or the art of making it. Such works may be carved, modeled, constructed, or cast. Sculptures can also be described as assemblage, in the round, and relief, and made in a huge variety of media. A sculptor is one who creates sculptures. (artlex.com)  is the only area that has been glazed. This is typical of Beug’s work, notes writer Norman Zepp, “As with most of Beug’s work the past is represented through the unglazed lower portions, while the present is indicated by the  glazedA term used in ceramics to describe a thin coating of minerals which produces a glassy transparent or colored coating on bisque ware. Typically applied either by brushing, dipping, or spraying, it is fixed by firing the bisque ware in a kiln. This makes the surface smooth, shiny, and waterproof. Also, a glaze can be a thin, translucent or transparent coat over a painting, sometimes meant simply to protect the paint underneath, but more often to add a veil of colouration to an area of a picture. (artlex.com)  surface elements.” (Zepp, 1985)

Beug applied an  opaqueSomething that cannot be seen through; the opposite of transparent, although something through which some light passes would be described as translucent. (Artlex.com)  light blue  glazeA term used in ceramics to describe a thin coating of minerals which produces a glassy transparent or colored coating on bisque ware. Typically applied either by brushing, dipping, or spraying, it is fixed by firing the bisque ware in a kiln. This makes the surface smooth, shiny, and waterproof. Also, a glaze can be a thin, translucent or transparent coat over a painting, sometimes meant simply to protect the paint underneath, but more often to add a veil of colouration to an area of a picture. (artlex.com)  to the  surface(an element of art) The outer or topmost boundary or layer of an object. Colours on any surface are determined by how incident rays of light strike it, and how a surface reflects, scatters, and absorbs those rays. The material qualities of a surface, as well as its form and texture further determine how it is seen and felt. (artlex.com) See also texture.  of the  clayMud; moist, sticky dirt. In ceramics, clay is the basic material, usually referring to any of a certain variety of mixtures of such ingredients — fine-grained, firm earthy material that is plastic when wet, brittle when dry, and very hard when heated. There is a temperature with ceramic clays at which their particles fuse (vitrification), and this is most commonly controlled by heating (firing) them in a kiln. The most common types of ceramic clays are earthenware (terra cotta when fired, terra cruda when not), stonewares, and porcelain. (Artlex.com)  after its  bisqueClay that has been fired once but not glazed. Also called biscuit. (Artlex.com)  firing, and then  firedTo fire is a process of applying heat to make hard pottery in either an oven or an ovenlike enclosure called a kiln. Also the means of fixing colours to ceramic surfaces. (Artlex.com)  this section again. The  firingTo fire is a process of applying heat to make hard pottery in either an oven or an ovenlike enclosure called a kiln. Also the means of fixing colours to ceramic surfaces. (Artlex.com)  process sealed the  surface(an element of art) The outer or topmost boundary or layer of an object. Colours on any surface are determined by how incident rays of light strike it, and how a surface reflects, scatters, and absorbs those rays. The material qualities of a surface, as well as its form and texture further determine how it is seen and felt. (artlex.com) See also texture.  with a glossy, glass-like finish. Beug creates a sense of motion in this area when he sculpts this water formation with tsunami-like waves.

On the top of the sculpture, Beug has applied shell-like forms to a sandy beach-like surface. The colour on the top is much the same as is in the second buried layer, but the aquatic references on the  surface(an element of art) The outer or topmost boundary or layer of an object. Colours on any surface are determined by how incident rays of light strike it, and how a surface reflects, scatters, and absorbs those rays. The material qualities of a surface, as well as its form and texture further determine how it is seen and felt. (artlex.com) See also texture.  are similar to the  imageryAn image is a picture, idea, or impression of a person, thing, or idea; or a mental picture of a person, thing, or idea. The word imagery refers to a group or body of related images. (Artlex.com)  found in the fourth layer. Could Beug be implying something about the earth of the future? A student of geological studies, and in particular Saskatchewan‘s geological history, he comments, “our history is positively exotic - this is a place where dinosaurs roamed sub-tropical forests, vast white beaches evaporated to potash and glaciers planed the sea bed and blanketed the land with clays.” (Beug, 1985)

additional resources Guide Book to a Ghost Town
Duration: 1:44 min
Size: 7397kb
Hawk's House Description
Duration: 1:22 min
Size: 6343kb
How He Got Started as an Artist
Duration: 1:47 min
Size: 8589kb
Interview with Timothy Long - Funk Art and the Regina Clay Movement
Duration: 3:35 min
Size: 15193kb
The Reason He Called It Hawk's House
Duration: 0:55 min
Size: 4231kb
Why the Table Shape
Duration: 1:55 min
Size: 8882kb
Things to Think About
  • Can Beug’s “clay images offer a perspective on the past and questions for the future”? (Manning, 1984) Do you think that in Slice of Earth Beug could be thinking about how humankind has changed the land?
  • Leslie Manning says, “Clay for Beug is, by its nature, one of the most scientific art materials.” (Manning, 1984) Could this be true?
  • “Space and time are frequently compressed in his works, so that for example the bones of the dinosaurs are right next to the arrowheads of the Indians.” (Whyte, 1979) What is artistic license and why do artists sometimes use this?
  • “I try to be serious about my work, but I have a sense of humour about it at the same time,” Beug says. (Ball, 1980) Does this work remind you of a multi-layered, multi-flavoured birthday cake where wrapped coins are hidden from the guests to be discovered as the cake is consumed?
  • “I want them [his viewers] to get immediate pleasure from it [his sculpture],” Beug once said. “I want them to get the idea that the prairie landscape is really exotic, exciting.” (Hryniuk, 1988) Many travellers comment on the unchanging landscape of the prairies.  What things can you find that are exciting about the landscape of Saskatchewan?
Online Activity
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From a  seriesA number of things or events standing or succeeding in order, and connected by a like relation; sequence; order; course; a succession of things; as, a continuous series of calamitous events. (The Online Plain Text English Dictionary)  of pie graphs, decide which pie graph would be the same size as Beug’s Slice of Earth.

  • Approximately what part of a circle would it represent? (1/10, 1/9, 1/8, 1/7, 1/6, 1/5, 1/4, 1/3, ½)

  • How many degrees in a circle?

  • How many degrees do you think Beug’s Slice of Earth is? 

 

Studio Activity

Faux art

Lorne Beug has been interested in creating  fauxFrench for false, artificial, fake. English speakers say "faux" to give a high-toned quality to what is often an imitation of a natural material — leather, fur, metal, or stone for example. Although faux materials are usually less expensive than the real thing, there can be other advantages to them: durability, uniformity, weight, colour, and availability perhaps. There can be allegorical advantages too (falsity can have its purposes!) particularly when juxtaposed with opulence. Faux finishes are painted simulations of other materials — the look of their colours and textures. (Artlex.com)  surfaces, both in  clayMud; moist, sticky dirt. In ceramics, clay is the basic material, usually referring to any of a certain variety of mixtures of such ingredients — fine-grained, firm earthy material that is plastic when wet, brittle when dry, and very hard when heated. There is a temperature with ceramic clays at which their particles fuse (vitrification), and this is most commonly controlled by heating (firing) them in a kiln. The most common types of ceramic clays are earthenware (terra cotta when fired, terra cruda when not), stonewares, and porcelain. (Artlex.com)  and in his other, non-clay works. In this work, Slice of Earth, he imitates real materials such as rock, sand, bones and shells.

  • Look at other real materials like plywood, marble, Styrofoam, fur, leather, carpeting, etc. Study them carefully and think about how you might reproduce the colours, textures and patterns you see.
  • Try to make a fake or faux finish of a real object.  To see some examples of faux finishes, go to ArtLex.com.
  • Experiment with making a variety of faux surfaces and faux versions of objects. Combine two or more faux surfaces or objects in one artwork.
Table

Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Step 8

For more information on trompe l’oeil (and “fooling the eye” is what faux finishes do!), go to Trompe l’oeil at Wikipedia

Artefacts or discovered remnants as inspiration for an art work

Sometimes artists use artefacts or things they have found as inspiration for their art making.  Artists found on the ARTSask website who apply this approach to art-making are Gisele Amantea, Ryan Arnott, Bill Burns, Jefferson Little, Liz Magor, Rick Pottroff and Martha Townsend.

  • Look through your childhood mementoes and decide if anything you have kept could be reinvented in an art project. (For example, if you found an old toy you could look at Jefferson Little’s work again and redesign old toys to communicate ideas about modern society.)
  • Find an old letter or other form of written communication, like the one Gisele Amantea used on her work Mabel k, and in some original way, use the letter as the inspiration for an art project.

Study an ant colony or other insect’s behaviours in your art

Norm Zepp writes about Beug‘s work, “An enduring influence has been the prairie landscape, an environment of extremes, which to me has a decidedly  surrealistSurrealism is an art movement in the early 20th century based on dreams, and the subconscious, and the distortion of representations.  flavour. From the air it is the most geometric of landscapes; on the surface, its apparent monotony forces the mind to the  microscopicOf or pertaining to the microscope or to microscopy; made with a microscope; as, microscopic observation. Able to see extremely minute objects. Very small; visible only by the aid of a microscope; as, a microscopic insect. (The Online Plain Text English Dictionary)  view.” (Zepp, 1985)

Beug took a  microscopicOf or pertaining to the microscope or to microscopy; made with a microscope; as, microscopic observation. Able to see extremely minute objects. Very small; visible only by the aid of a microscope; as, a microscopic insect. (The Online Plain Text English Dictionary)  look at the world when he did a  seriesA number of things or events standing or succeeding in order, and connected by a like relation; sequence; order; course; a succession of things; as, a continuous series of calamitous events. (The Online Plain Text English Dictionary)  of work related to his study of ant colonies.

  • Study the behaviours and patterns created by the organisms of that world.
  • Then create your own imaginary world within a small box where kings and queens, villains and benefactors, fairies and trolls, etc. inhabit and co-exist.
  • Decorate the exterior of the box in a way that reflects or hints at what is happening in the interior.
  • Enjoy viewing your creation and those of your friends and when finished sharing and photographing the results, if you have used “edible clay”, enjoy eating your creations!

To make “edible clay”, first wash your hands with soap and water thoroughly, then combine the following ingredients and start building. Make sure to use clean equipment and work on a clean surface.

1 18-ounce jar of peanut butter
6 tablespoons of honey
½ cup powered milk

For this and other recipes go to Cooks.com

Using coloured clay

Making coloured clays is easy but requires a clean workspace in order to avoid colour contamination, of one coloured-clay, by another.

  • Any clay can be used, but a white clay body gives the most contrast.
  • For a consistent all-over colour, combine powders - your powdered colorant into your powdered clay - and mix well before adding water.
  • Two like-bodied but different coloured commercially produced clays can also be mixed.
  • To keep it moist, wrap your clay well, by placing it in a couple of layers of plastic that have no holes. Clean, recycled plastic bags work well.

Once you have several colours there are lots of things you can try:

Second option

  • Roll out two slabs of coloured clay to the same thickness - about three centimetres.
  • Because the clay is very fresh and supple, by applying pressure to the bars of clay you can join the sections together and remove any air bubbles.

Another option

  • Roll out two slabs and join the two carefully one on top of the other.
  • Cut across the grain and join the cross-cut sections to create a slab. Use you slab to make a bowl, plate or vase.
  • Experiment freely and see what surprising results you can accomplish.

Eco-friendly  clayMud; moist, sticky dirt. In ceramics, clay is the basic material, usually referring to any of a certain variety of mixtures of such ingredients — fine-grained, firm earthy material that is plastic when wet, brittle when dry, and very hard when heated. There is a temperature with ceramic clays at which their particles fuse (vitrification), and this is most commonly controlled by heating (firing) them in a kiln. The most common types of ceramic clays are earthenware (terra cotta when fired, terra cruda when not), stonewares, and porcelain. (Artlex.com)  alternative

An alternative to  clayMud; moist, sticky dirt. In ceramics, clay is the basic material, usually referring to any of a certain variety of mixtures of such ingredients — fine-grained, firm earthy material that is plastic when wet, brittle when dry, and very hard when heated. There is a temperature with ceramic clays at which their particles fuse (vitrification), and this is most commonly controlled by heating (firing) them in a kiln. The most common types of ceramic clays are earthenware (terra cotta when fired, terra cruda when not), stonewares, and porcelain. (Artlex.com)  can be produced using construction paper scraps.

  • Rip two cups of like-coloured paper scraps into small pieces and place in a blender.
  • Add four and a half cups of water and blend until the mixture is reduced to a pulp.
  • Drain the mixture and remove all excess water from the resulting pulp.
  • Next, take a half-cup of water and mix it with a half-cup of flour.
  • Then work this flour and water mixture into the paper pulp and knead it like you would knead bread dough.

Using a mold 1

Working with a press mold

To make some of the aquatic images on his  sculptureA three-dimensional work of art, or the art of making it. Such works may be carved, modeled, constructed, or cast. Sculptures can also be described as assemblage, in the round, and relief, and made in a huge variety of media. A sculptor is one who creates sculptures. (artlex.com)  Lorne Beug may have used press molds. They are relatively easy to make and fun to apply to your  ceramicPottery or hollow clay sculpture fired at high temperatures in a kiln or oven to make them harder and stronger. Types include earthenware, porcelain, stoneware, and terra cotta. (Artlex.com)  work.

For more information on working with clay, go to:

Science Behind the Art

By:  Fran Haidl, Saskatchewan Ministry of Energy and Resources

Lorne Beug’s  sculptureA three-dimensional work of art, or the art of making it. Such works may be carved, modeled, constructed, or cast. Sculptures can also be described as assemblage, in the round, and relief, and made in a huge variety of media. A sculptor is one who creates sculptures. (artlex.com)  Slice of Earth provides us with a model that helps us envision the layers of rock we would find if we were to “just keep digging” beneath our feet. Each layer represents a different stage in the history of the earth; the youngest layer is at the top and the layers get progressively older as you go deeper. Using clays of different colours, the artist portrays layers composed of different materials. Included are two layers with fossils, the uppermost of which contains fossil bones and teeth of animals which appeared on Earth much later than did the marine organisms such as snails, clams, corals and crinoids (see images of crinoids and corals below) that are featured in the lower thick dark grey layer. The top surface represents a sandy modern beach adjacent to a body of water which is depicted in vivid blue ceramic; on the beach are shells of animals that are living today.

Crinoid Coral

Slice of Earth can help us understand the geological history of southern Saskatchewan but we have to use our imagination to adapt some of the layers to fit what we would find if we “just kept digging”. We also have to remember that the thickness of each of the layers does not reflect the relative thickness of rocks of various ages preserved in Saskatchewan’s subsurface.  There will be variations in the geological story depending on where in Saskatchewan you begin your journey down to the ancient rocks. At the beginning or end of your journey, be sure to include a visit to the online version of the Geoscape Southern Saskatchewan poster.

Starting from the bottom, the basal layer of our model can be interpreted to represent the oldest rocks in Saskatchewan that are  PrecambrianTo find out about the precambrian period, go to: The Precambrian (at Berkeley): http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/precambrian/precambrian.html Paleos Timescale: http://www.palaeos.com/Timescale/Precambrian.htm Paleobiology: http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookPaleo2.html Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precambrian   in age (around 1.8 to 3.4 billion years old) and are composed primarily of  igneousPertaining to, having the nature of, fire; containing fire; resembling fire; as, an igneous appearance. Resulting from, or produced by, the action of fire; as, lavas and basalt are igneous rocks. (The Online Plain Text English Dictionary)  and  metamorphicPertaining to, produced by, or exhibiting, certain changes which minerals or rocks may have undergone since their original deposition; -- especially applied to the recrystallization which sedimentary rocks have undergone through the influence of heat and pressure, after which they are called metamorphic rocks. The state or quality of being metamorphic; the process by which the material of rock masses has been more or less recrystallized by heat, pressure, etc., as in the change of sedimentary limestone to marble. (The Online Plain Text English Dictionary)  rocks. The break that separates this layer from the overlying thick dark grey layer represents almost 1.3 billion years for which we have no rock record due primarily to erosion of rocks of those ages; in geological terms this time gap is called an unconformity. Overlying this unconformity surface are rocks composed primarily of  limestoneStone composed mainly of calcium carbonate, much of it sedimentary rock and formed by fossil deposits. Marble is actually a limestone that can be polished. (Artlex.com)  and dolostone. The fossils in this layer tell us that for much of the time between about 540 and 330 million years ago, Saskatchewan was covered by warm seas - in which lived an abundance of organisms including corals, ammonites, clams, snails, brachiopods, trilobites, sponges, crinoids, fish, and worms. During times in which the seas were too salty for these marine organisms to live, halite, sylvite and other  evaporiteFind out about Evaporite at: Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evaporite Evaporites: http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/sciences/Earthscience/Oceanography/OceanSediments/Evaporites/Evaporites.htm    mineralsAn inorganic species or substance occurring in nature, having a definite chemical composition and usually a distinct crystalline form. Rocks, except certain glassy igneous forms, are either simple minerals or aggregates of minerals.  (The Online Plain Text English Dictionary)  were deposited. It was during one such period about 390 million years ago that Saskatchewan’s potash resources were formed. Another unconformity representing a time gap of at least 100 million years separates this layer from the overlying layer.
 
Mastodon We have to expand our imaginative powers to interpret the remaining 300 million years of southern Saskatchewan’s geological history. Imagine that dinosaur bones and teeth, and other marine and non-marine fossils are preserved in the greyish brown layer above the unconformity  surface(an element of art) The outer or topmost boundary or layer of an object. Colours on any surface are determined by how incident rays of light strike it, and how a surface reflects, scatters, and absorbs those rays. The material qualities of a surface, as well as its form and texture further determine how it is seen and felt. (artlex.com) See also texture.  at the top of the dark grey layer. This layer can then be interpreted as representing sandstone and shale (and minor limestone) deposited from about 231 to 65 million years ago. The light brown layer above represents rocks that are between 65 and 1.8 million years old; these rocks can be  foundAn image, material, or object, not originally intended as a work of art, that is obtained, selected, and exhibited by an artist, often without being altered in any way. The cubists, dadaists, and surrealists originated the use of found images / materials / objects. Although it can be either a natural or manufactured image / material / object, the term readymade refers only to those which were manufactured. Also known in the French, objet trouvé. (Artlex.com)  only in southernmost Saskatchewan and consist of sandstone, shale and coal. Fossils include remains of horses, brontotheres, mastodons (pictured here), rhinoceros, fish, crocodiles, turtles, and other  vertebrateOne of the grand divisions of the animal kingdom, comprising all animals that have a backbone composed of bony or cartilaginous vertebrae, together with Amphioxus in which the backbone is represented by a simple undivided notochord. The Vertebrata always have a dorsal, or neural, cavity above the notochord or backbone, and a ventral, or visceral, cavity below it. The subdivisions or classes of Vertebrata are Mammalia, Aves, Reptilia, Amphibia, Pisces, Marsipobranchia, and Leptocardia. (The Online Plain Text English Dictionary)  and  invertebrateA comprehensive division of the animal kingdom, including all except the Vertebrata. Without a backbone; having no vertebrae; of or pertaining to the Invertebrata. (The Online Plain Text English Dictionary)  animals; plant fossils are also abundant. Separating this layer from the underlying layer is the famous Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary that marks a mass extinction event which saw the extinction of about 75 percent of all species on earth, including the dinosaurs. The youngest layer beneath our sandy beach  surface(an element of art) The outer or topmost boundary or layer of an object. Colours on any surface are determined by how incident rays of light strike it, and how a surface reflects, scatters, and absorbs those rays. The material qualities of a surface, as well as its form and texture further determine how it is seen and felt. (artlex.com) See also texture.  represents the deposits associated with the  Ice AgeFind out about ice ages at: Canadian Museum of Nature: http://www.nature.ca/notebooks/englIsh/iceage.htm Cracking the Ice Age at Nova Online: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/ice/ A quick background to the last ice age: http://www.esd.ornl.gov/projects/qen/nerc130k.html Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ice_age   glaciers that covered Saskatchewan at least eight times in the last 1.8 million years; the last continental ice sheet retreated between 17,000 and 8,000 years ago. Above these glacial deposits we find ourselves back on the  surface(an element of art) The outer or topmost boundary or layer of an object. Colours on any surface are determined by how incident rays of light strike it, and how a surface reflects, scatters, and absorbs those rays. The material qualities of a surface, as well as its form and texture further determine how it is seen and felt. (artlex.com) See also texture.  on our sandy beach beside a body of water. The man-made Rafferty Reservoir between Weyburn and Estevan may be the only place in southern Saskatchewan where, if we “kept on digging” on the shores of a large body of water, we would  intersectTo cut into one another; to meet and cross each other; as, the point where two lines intersect. (The Online Plain Text English Dictionary)  all of the first three layers depicted beneath the beach layer on the artist’s Slice of Earth.

References

Ball, Denise.  ‘Lorne Beug’s work is down-to-earth.’  The Regina Leader Post, November 1, 1980.

Beug, Lorne.  Beugography.  Unpublished document, 2002.

Beug, Lorne.  ‘Artist Statement.’  in Lorne Beug: Artists with Their Work.  Exhibition catalogue.  MacKenzie Art Gallery, Regina, Saskatchewan, 1985.

Hryniuk, Margaret.  ‘A different look at the vast Regina plains.’  Regina Sun, April 3, 1988.

Manning, Leslie.  ‘New Directions in Clay.’  Vanguard, Vol.13 #1, Feb. 1984.

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Canadian Heritage University of Regina Mackenzie Art Gallery Mendel Art Gallery Sask Learning